Tugas 3 Penerjemahan Berbantuan Komputer

Name: Anggiana Yuanita Fardhani

Class: 4SA01

NPM: 11614238


Commentary: Journalism not closed-shop profession

Endy Bayuni

The Jakarta Post

Jakarta | Thu, May 3, 2018 | 09:18 am

 

On World Press Freedom Day on May 3, it may be worth for journalists in Indonesia to reinforce their commitment to fight for freedom — not just their freedom, but also the wider freedom of expression. The struggle must continue, for freedom is something that no one should ever take for granted.

It is therefore disturbing to find the tendency for journalists now to be on the front line in trying to set up more regulations in the name of fighting hoaxes and fake news. The government is only happy to see this and willingly will accept the task to enforce these regulations. This is going against the spirit of why we are celebrating World Press Freedom Day.

Blame it on the internet for creating havoc in the information industry. The proliferation of news and information has brought about massive disruption in society. Every aspect of our lives — political, economic, social, cultural and traditional — is affected. Journalism, a profession closely linked to the information industry, has not been spared.

Thanks to the internet, everyone with a smartphone/laptop and internet connection, can now call himself a journalist in its wider definition: someone who disseminates news and information to the masses, now through the various social media platforms. In the pre-internet era, this was almost an exclusive domain of journalists.

Admittedly, not all of them observe the disciplines, principles as well as ethics that govern the profession. They are not obliged to verify the information before posting it, be fair if not balanced, cover both sides and apply other principles journalists go through. They don’t have to have this sense of public service. Often, they have an agenda — hidden or otherwise.

They are certainly quick and beat professional journalists in their own game, irrespective of the quality of the information. Often, their stories are so outrageous and so unreal that theirs are the ones that go viral, and not stories prepared by the serious journalists.

Feeling threatened, many journalist and media organizations have taken steps to defend their relevance by turning journalism into a closed-shop profession, meaning more regulations.

Initiatives have been proposed to contain the threat of hoaxes and fake news. They range from the verification, registration, accreditation and certification of journalists and media, to organizing standard tests and issuing cards for those who meet the criteria.

For those who had been in this profession since before Indonesia became a democracy in 1998, these initiatives sound very much like measures imposed on journalists and media under the repressive Soeharto regime, then designed to muzzle the press.

While the intention may be noble this time around, their proponents are turning journalism into a profession to the exclusion of others. Like doctors and architects, only those who are so accredited should be allowed to practice the trade; all others should not be trusted.

These measures at any rate could hardly stop or prevent the spread of hoaxes and fake news. You have to go to China to do that, and even there, it is not 100 percent foolproof. But what these actions have done is to announce that these card-carrying, certified and accredited journalists are in a class of their own, with all the rights that come with the profession.

Indonesian journalists already enjoy privileges under the 1999 Press Law, while ordinary people are subject to the Criminal Code (KUHP). The cyberlaw, which contains draconian articles to limit our freedom, is not applied to journalists who would invoke the lex specialis principle.

The campaign to make journalism a closed-shop profession is clearly driven more by self-interests rather than out of a real concern to fight fake news and hoaxes.

The biggest threat to journalism is not coming from non-journalists practicing the trade without observing the principles and ethics; it is coming from journalists and media, many accredited and certified, who are violating the public trust through malpractices. They are some of the worst offenders of disseminating fakes and hoaxes.

They may have shielded themselves through the press law and regulations that make them feel like a special breed of first-class citizens. They fool no one but themselves.

Members of the public care little, and have little time to check whether the stories they read or watch come from accredited sources. They decide whether stories are credible or not, and they form their opinion whether the journalist or media that supplied them can be trusted. No amount of regulation, including certification and registration, can change that.

On World Press Freedom Day, journalists should be thankful for the privileges and freedom the nation accorded them to allow them to work effectively. Instead of making their profession more exclusive, they should fight to ensure everyone enjoys the same privileges and freedoms.

***

The writer, a senior editor of The Jakarta Post, has been a journalist for 35 years.


Google Translate

Komentar: Jurnalisme bukan profesi tertutup

Endy Bayuni

The Jakarta Post

Jakarta | Kam, 3 Mei 2018 | 09:18 pagi

 

Pada Hari Kebebasan Pers Sedunia pada 3 Mei, mungkin layak bagi para jurnalis di Indonesia untuk memperkuat komitmen mereka untuk memperjuangkan kebebasan – bukan hanya kebebasan mereka, tetapi juga kebebasan berekspresi yang lebih luas. Perjuangan harus dilanjutkan, karena kebebasan adalah sesuatu yang tidak boleh dianggap biasa oleh siapapun.

Oleh karena itu sangat mengganggu untuk menemukan kecenderungan bagi para jurnalis untuk berada di garis depan dalam mencoba mengatur lebih banyak peraturan atas nama melawan hoax dan berita palsu. Pemerintah hanya senang melihat ini dan dengan senang hati akan menerima tugas untuk menegakkan peraturan ini. Ini bertentangan dengan semangat mengapa kita merayakan Hari Kebebasan Pers Dunia.

Salahkan di internet karena membuat kekacauan di industri informasi. Berkembangnya berita dan informasi telah membawa gangguan besar dalam masyarakat. Setiap aspek kehidupan kita – politik, ekonomi, sosial, budaya dan tradisional – terpengaruh. Jurnalisme, sebuah profesi yang terkait erat dengan industri informasi, belum terhindar.

Berkat internet, setiap orang dengan smartphone / laptop dan koneksi internet, sekarang dapat menyebut dirinya seorang jurnalis dalam definisi yang lebih luas: seseorang yang menyebarkan berita dan informasi kepada massa, sekarang melalui berbagai platform media sosial. Di era pra-internet, ini hampir menjadi domain eksklusif para jurnalis.

Harus diakui, tidak semuanya mengamati disiplin, prinsip, serta etika yang mengatur profesi. Mereka tidak berkewajiban untuk memverifikasi informasi sebelum mempostingnya, bersikap adil jika tidak seimbang, mencakup kedua sisi dan menerapkan prinsip-prinsip lain yang dilalui oleh para wartawan. Mereka tidak harus memiliki rasa layanan publik ini. Seringkali, mereka memiliki agenda – tersembunyi atau sebaliknya.

Mereka pasti cepat dan mengalahkan jurnalis profesional dalam permainan mereka sendiri, terlepas dari kualitas informasi. Seringkali, kisah-kisah mereka begitu memalukan dan begitu tidak nyata sehingga kisah-kisah mereka menjadi viral, dan bukan cerita yang dipersiapkan oleh jurnalis yang serius.

Merasa terancam, banyak wartawan dan organisasi media telah mengambil langkah untuk mempertahankan relevansinya dengan mengubah jurnalisme menjadi profesi tertutup, yang berarti lebih banyak peraturan.

Inisiatif telah diusulkan untuk mengandung ancaman hoax dan berita palsu. Mulai dari verifikasi, registrasi, akreditasi dan sertifikasi jurnalis dan media, untuk mengatur tes standar dan mengeluarkan kartu bagi mereka yang memenuhi kriteria.

Bagi mereka yang telah berkecimpung dalam profesi ini sejak sebelum Indonesia menjadi negara demokrasi pada tahun 1998, prakarsa ini terdengar sangat mirip dengan langkah-langkah yang dikenakan pada jurnalis dan media di bawah rezim Soeharto yang represif, kemudian dirancang untuk memberangus pers.

Meskipun niat itu mungkin mulia kali ini, para pendukungnya mengubah jurnalisme menjadi profesi dengan mengesampingkan orang lain. Seperti dokter dan arsitek, hanya mereka yang begitu terakreditasi harus diizinkan untuk mempraktekkan perdagangan; yang lainnya tidak boleh dipercaya.

Langkah-langkah ini pada tingkat apapun hampir tidak bisa menghentikan atau mencegah penyebaran hoax dan berita palsu. Anda harus pergi ke China untuk melakukan itu, dan bahkan di sana, itu tidak 100 persen sangat mudah. Namun apa yang telah dilakukan oleh tindakan ini adalah mengumumkan bahwa jurnalis yang membawa kartu, bersertifikat, dan terakreditasi ini berada dalam kelas mereka sendiri, dengan semua hak yang ada dalam profesi tersebut.

Wartawan Indonesia sudah menikmati hak istimewa berdasarkan UU Pers 1999, sementara orang biasa tunduk pada KUHP. Cyberlaw, yang berisi artikel kejam untuk membatasi kebebasan kita, tidak diterapkan pada wartawan yang akan menggunakan prinsip lex specialis.

Kampanye untuk menjadikan jurnalisme sebagai profesi toko tertutup jelas lebih didorong oleh kepentingan pribadi daripada dari keprihatinan nyata untuk melawan berita palsu dan tipuan.

Ancaman terbesar terhadap jurnalisme bukan berasal dari non-jurnalis yang mempraktekkan perdagangan tanpa memperhatikan prinsip dan etika; itu berasal dari wartawan dan media, banyak yang terakreditasi dan bersertifikat, yang melanggar kepercayaan publik melalui malpraktek. Mereka adalah beberapa pelanggar terburuk dari penyebaran palsu dan tipuan.

Mereka mungkin melindungi diri mereka sendiri melalui undang-undang pers dan peraturan yang membuat mereka merasa seperti kelompok khusus warga kelas satu. Mereka tidak menipu siapa pun kecuali diri mereka sendiri.

Anggota masyarakat peduli sedikit, dan punya sedikit waktu untuk memeriksa apakah cerita yang mereka baca atau tonton berasal dari sumber yang terakreditasi. Mereka memutuskan apakah cerita itu kredibel atau tidak, dan mereka membentuk opini mereka apakah jurnalis atau media yang memasok mereka dapat dipercaya. Tidak ada jumlah regulasi, termasuk sertifikasi dan registrasi, yang dapat mengubahnya.

Pada Hari Kebebasan Pers Dunia, jurnalis harus berterima kasih atas hak istimewa dan kebebasan yang diberikan kepada mereka agar mereka dapat bekerja secara efektif. Alih-alih membuat profesi mereka lebih eksklusif, mereka harus berjuang untuk memastikan semua orang menikmati hak istimewa dan kebebasan yang sama.

 

***

 

Penulis, editor senior The Jakarta Post, telah menjadi jurnalis selama 35 tahun.


Terjemahan sendiri

Komentar: Jurnalisme bukan profesi tertutup

Endy Bayuni

The Jakarta Post

Jakarta | Kam, 3 Mei 2018 | 09:18 pagi

 

Pada Hari Kebebasan Pers Sedunia pada 3 Mei, mungkin layak bagi para jurnalis di Indonesia untuk memperkuat komitmen mereka untuk memperjuangkan kebebasan – bukan hanya kebebasan mereka, tetapi juga kebebasan berekspresi yang lebih luas. Perjuangan harus dilanjutkan, karena kebebasan adalah sesuatu yang tidak boleh dianggap biasa oleh siapapun.

Oleh karena itu sangat mengacaukan untuk menemukan tujuan bagi para jurnalis untuk berada di garis depan dalam mencoba mengatur lebih banyak peraturan atas nama melawan hoax dan berita palsu. Pemerintah hanya senang melihat ini dan dengan senang hati akan menerima tugas untuk menegakkan peraturan ini. Ini bertentangan dengan semangat mengapa kita merayakan Hari Kebebasan Pers Dunia.

Salahkan internet karena membuat kekacauan di industri informasi. Berkembangnya berita dan informasi telah membawa gangguan besar dalam masyarakat. Setiap aspek kehidupan kita – politik, ekonomi, sosial, budaya dan tradisional – terpengaruh. Jurnalisme, sebuah profesi yang terkait erat dengan industri informasi, belum terhindar.

Berkat internet, setiap orang dengan smartphone / laptop dan koneksi internet, sekarang dapat menyebut dirinya seorang jurnalis dalam definisi yang lebih luas: seseorang yang menyebarkan berita dan informasi kepada massa, sekarang melalui berbagai platform media sosial. Di era pra-internet, ini hampir menjadi domain eksklusif para jurnalis.

Harus diakui, tidak semuanya mengamati disiplin, prinsip, serta etika yang mengatur profesi. Mereka tidak berkewajiban untuk memverifikasi informasi sebelum mempostingnya, bersikap adil jika tidak seimbang, mencakup kedua sisi dan menerapkan prinsip-prinsip lain yang dilalui oleh para wartawan. Mereka tidak harus memiliki rasa layanan publik ini. Seringkali, mereka memiliki agenda – tersembunyi atau sebaliknya.

Mereka pasti cepat dan mengalahkan jurnalis profesional dalam permainan mereka sendiri, terlepas dari kualitas informasi. Seringkali, kisah-kisah mereka begitu memalukan dan begitu tidak nyata sehingga kisah-kisah mereka menjadi viral, dan bukan cerita yang dipersiapkan oleh jurnalis yang serius.

Merasa terancam, banyak wartawan dan organisasi media telah mengambil langkah untuk mempertahankan relevansinya dengan mengubah jurnalisme menjadi profesi tertutup, yang berarti lebih banyak peraturan.

Inisiatif telah diusulkan untuk mengandung ancaman hoax dan berita palsu. Mulai dari verifikasi, registrasi, akreditasi dan sertifikasi jurnalis dan media, untuk mengatur tes standar dan mengeluarkan kartu bagi mereka yang memenuhi kriteria.

Bagi mereka yang telah berkecimpung dalam profesi ini sejak sebelum Indonesia menjadi negara demokrasi pada tahun 1998, prakarsa ini terdengar sangat mirip dengan langkah-langkah yang dikenakan pada jurnalis dan media di bawah rezim Soeharto yang represif, kemudian dirancang untuk membredel pers.

Meskipun niat itu mungkin mulia kali ini, para pendukungnya mengubah jurnalisme menjadi profesi dengan mengesampingkan orang lain. Seperti dokter dan arsitek, hanya mereka yang begitu terakreditasi harus diizinkan untuk mempraktekkan perdagangan; yang lainnya tidak boleh dipercaya.

Langkah-langkah ini pada tingkat apapun hampir tidak bisa menghentikan atau mencegah penyebaran hoax dan berita palsu. Anda harus pergi ke Tiongkok untuk melakukan itu, dan bahkan di sana, itu tidak 100 persen sangat mudah. Namun apa yang telah dilakukan oleh tindakan ini adalah mengumumkan bahwa jurnalis yang membawa kartu, bersertifikat, dan terakreditasi ini berada dalam kelas mereka sendiri, dengan semua hak yang ada dalam profesi tersebut.

Wartawan Indonesia sudah menikmati hak istimewa berdasarkan UU Pers 1999, sementara orang biasa tunduk pada KUHP. Cyberlaw, yang berisi artikel kejam untuk membatasi kebebasan kita, tidak diterapkan pada wartawan yang akan menggunakan prinsip lex specialis.

Kampanye untuk menjadikan jurnalisme sebagai profesi toko tertutup jelas lebih didorong oleh kepentingan pribadi daripada dari keprihatinan nyata untuk melawan berita palsu dan tipuan.

Ancaman terbesar terhadap jurnalisme bukan berasal dari non-jurnalis yang mempraktekkan perdagangan tanpa memperhatikan prinsip dan etika; itu berasal dari wartawan dan media, banyak yang terakreditasi dan bersertifikat, yang melanggar kepercayaan publik melalui malpraktek. Mereka adalah beberapa pelanggar terburuk dari penyebaran palsu dan tipuan.

Mereka mungkin melindungi diri mereka sendiri melalui undang-undang pers dan peraturan yang membuat mereka merasa seperti kelompok khusus warga kelas satu. Mereka tidak menipu siapa pun kecuali diri mereka sendiri.

Anggota masyarakat peduli sedikit, dan punya sedikit waktu untuk memeriksa apakah cerita yang mereka baca atau tonton berasal dari sumber yang terakreditasi. Mereka memutuskan apakah cerita itu kredibel atau tidak, dan mereka membentuk opini mereka apakah jurnalis atau media yang memasok mereka dapat dipercaya. Tidak ada jumlah regulasi, termasuk sertifikasi dan registrasi, yang dapat mengubahnya.

Pada Hari Kebebasan Pers Dunia, jurnalis harus berterima kasih atas hak istimewa dan kebebasan yang diberikan kepada mereka agar mereka dapat bekerja secara efektif. Alih-alih membuat profesi mereka lebih eksklusif, mereka harus berjuang untuk memastikan semua orang menikmati hak istimewa dan kebebasan yang sama.

 

***

 

Penulis, editor senior The Jakarta Post, telah menjadi jurnalis selama 35 tahun.

 

 

 

Iklan

Tugas 2 Penerjemahan Berbantuan Komputer

Nama: Anggiana Yuanita Fardhani

Kelas: 4SA01

NPM: 11614238

 

Seperti Zuckerberg, Pengguna Facebook Messenger Bakal Bisa Hapus Pesan

KOMPAS.com – Facebook tertangkap basah menghapus pesan lama Mark Zuckerberg dan beberapa petinggi Facebook yang dikirim beberapa tahun silam. Selama ini layanan pesan Facebook ataupun aplikasi Messenger tak memiliki fitur menghapus pesan sehingga pengguna biasa tidak mungkin bisa melakukannya.

Usai kepergok, Facebook mengaku memang telah sengaja menghapus sejumlah pesan yang pernah dikirim oleh beberapa eksekutif perusahaan, termasuk Zuckerberg selaku pendiri dan CEO. Facebook berdalih penghapusan perlu dilakukan demi kerahasiaan data, meyusul kejadian peretasan Sony Pictures pada 2014 lalu.

Tak hanya itu, seolah ingin meredam amarah pengguna yang diperlakukan berbeda dari eksekutif Facebook, perusahaan tersebut kemudian menjanjikan bahwa fitur penghapusan pesan nantinya bakal tersedia buat semua orang, tak hanya terbatas untuk kalangan tertentu saja.

“Kami telah mendiskusikan fitur ini (penghapusan pesan) berungkali”, jelas perwakilan Facebook, yang dirangkum KompasTekno dari Android Authority, Minggu (8/4/2018). “Kami akan membuat fitur hapus pesan untuk tersedia secara umum,” imbuh sang representatif.

Meski Facebook memberi janji manis, masih belum jelas kapan fitur ini akan diimplementasikan atau bagaimana cara kerjanya di Messenger nanti. Selagi menunggu kesiapan fitur penghapusan pesan, Facebook kembali berjanji bahwa para eksekutif perusahaan tak akan lagi menghapus pesan lama sebelum para pengguna Messenger mendapatkan kemampuan serupa.

Fitur penghapusan pesan hingga kini masih absen dari Messenger, meskipun sudah beberapa lama diterapkan di WhatsApp yang juga dimiliki Facebook. Pengguna Messenger memang bisa menghapus pesan yang ditulisnya dalam obrolan, tapi pesan tersebut hanya akan terhapus dari inbox pengguna, sementara lawan bicara tetap bisa melihatya, macam opsi “delete for me” di WhatsApp.

Messenger sebenarnya juga memiliki fitur pesan yang bisa terhapus sendiri apabila telah lewat waktu tertentu yang disetel sebelumnya dengan timer. Namun, hal ini hanya tersedia di mode obrolan rahasia (Secret) yang terenkripsi dan tidak berlaku untuk chatting biasa.
Artikel ini telah tayang di Kompas.com dengan judul “Seperti Zuckerberg, Pengguna Facebook Messenger Bakal Bisa Hapus Pesan”, https://tekno.kompas.com/read/2018/04/08/12570057/seperti-zuckerberg-pengguna-facebook-messenger-bakal-bisa-hapus-pesan.
Penulis : Wahyunanda Kusuma Pertiwi
Editor : Oik Yusuf
 

Google Translate:

Like Zuckerberg, Facebook Messenger Users Can Delete Messages

 

KOMPAS.com – Facebook was caught wiping out old messages Mark Zuckerberg and some of Facebook’s top brass sent a few years ago. So far, Facebook messaging service or Messenger application does not have the feature delete the message so that ordinary users may not be able to do so.

After caught, Facebook claimed to have deliberately deleted a number of messages ever sent by several corporate executives, including Zuckerberg as founder and CEO. Facebook quibble deletion needs to be done for the sake of data confidentiality, meyusul incident hacking Sony Pictures in 2014 ago.

Not only that, as if to muffle the anger of users who are treated differently from the Facebook executives, the company is then promising that messaging removal feature will be available for everyone, not just limited to certain circles only.

“We have discussed this feature (deletion of messages) again”, explains the representative of Facebook, which KompasTekno summarized from Android Authority, Sunday (8/4/2018). “We will create a delete message feature to be publicly available,” added the representative.

Although Facebook gives sweet promises, it is unclear when this feature will be implemented or how it works in Messenger later. While waiting for the message deletion feature, Facebook again promises that company executives will no longer delete messages long before Messenger users get similar capabilities.

Messages deletion feature is still absent from Messenger, although it has been applied for some time in WhatsApp also owned by Facebook. Messenger users can indeed delete messages written in chat, but the message will only be deleted from the user’s inbox, while the other person can still see the “delete for me” option in WhatsApp.

Messenger actually also has a messaging feature that can be deleted itself if it has passed a certain time set with the previous timer. However, this is only available in secret encrypted mode (Secret) which is encrypted and does not apply to regular chats.

 

This article has been published on Kompas.com under the heading “Like Zuckerberg, Facebook Messenger Users Can Delete Messages”, https://tekno.kompas.com/read/2018/04/08/12570057/seperti-zuckerberg-user-facebook -messenger-going-to-delete-messages.

Author: Wahyunanda Kusuma Pertiwi

Editor: Oik Yusuf
.
My Translation:

Like Zuckerberg, Facebook Messenger Users Can Delete Messages

 

KOMPAS.com – Facebook was caught deleting old messages of Mark Zuckerberg and some of Facebook’s top brass sent a few years ago. So far, Facebook messaging service or Messenger application does not have the feature delete the message so that regular users may not be able to do so.

After being caught, Facebook claimed to have deliberately deleted a number of messages sent by several corporate executives, including Zuckerberg as founder and CEO. Facebook quibble deletion needs to be done for the sake of data confidentiality, following the incident about the hacking Sony Pictures in 2014 ago.

Not only that, as if to stop the anger of users who are treated differently from the Facebook executives, the company is then promising that messaging removal feature will be available for everyone, not just limited to certain circles only.

“We have discussed this feature (deletion of messages) again”, explains the representative of Facebook, which KompasTekno summarized from Android Authority, Sunday (8/4/2018). “We will create a delete message feature to be publicly available,” added the representative.

Although Facebook gives sweet promises, it is unclear when this feature will be performed or how it works in Messenger later. While waiting for the message deletion feature, Facebook again promises that company executives will no longer delete messages before Messenger users get similar capabilities.

Messages deletion feature is still absent from Messenger, although it has been applied for some time in WhatsApp also owned by Facebook. Messenger users can delete messages written in chat, but the message will only be deleted from the user’s inbox, while the other person can still see the “delete for me” option in WhatsApp.

Messenger actually also has a messaging feature that can be deleted itself if it has passed a certain time set with the previous timer. However, this is only available in secret encrypted mode (Secret) which is encrypted and does not apply to regular chats.

 

This article has been published on Kompas.com under the heading “Like Zuckerberg, Facebook Messenger Users Can Delete Messages”, https://tekno.kompas.com/read/2018/04/08/12570057/seperti-zuckerberg-user-facebook -messenger-going-to-delete-messages.

Author: Wahyunanda Kusuma Pertiwi

Editor: Oik Yusuf

Tugas 1 Penerjemahan Berbantuan Komputer

Name: Anggiana Yuanita Fardhani

Class: 4SA01

NPM: 11614238

ABOUT INDONESIAN FOOD

 

With 6,000 islands, there are many regional specialties, but wherever you are in Indonesia, most meals, including breakfast, are based around rice. Literally meaning “fried rice”, nasi goreng is considered the national dish of Indonesia and can be found everywhere from street hawker carts to dinner parties or restaurants. It is a meal of stir-fried rice spiced with kecap manis (sweet soy sauce), shallot, garlic, tamarind and chilli and accompanied by other ingredients, mainly egg, chicken, prawns or salted dried fish.

Sambals are also a cornerstone of the cuisine and these chilli-based condiments may be either freshly made or store-bought. There are many types of sambals, all of which combine a variety of chilli peppers with different combinations of spices, fruits or vegetables.

Indonesians believe in giving a “kick start” to their palate with the heat of chilli and the sour crunch of pickles, so meals generally comprise rice, sambal and pickles with small amounts of meats, seafood or vegetables, often in curry form. People eat either with their right hand or with a spoon and fork.

Some of the intense flavour in Indonesian food comes from very sweet and sour ingredients – such as the thick sweet soy sauce called kecap manis, which is used in countless dishes. The sour notes in the cuisine come from tamarind and lime and the aromatics from shallots, ginger, galangal, pandan, turmeric, lemongrass and lime leaves.

Two foods adored by Indonesians are tempeh – fermented soybeans usually found in block form that are high in protein and fibre – and krupuk, or deep fried crackers, made from prawn, seafood or vegetables, which are eaten at the start of a meal.

Because of the humid climate and volcanic soil, tropical fruits, vegetables and spices are found in abundance. Dried spices such as coriander seeds, cardamom pods, cinnamon quills, cumin seeds, cloves and nutmeg are used every day in many dishes and each curry has a number of dried spices as well as fresh herbs.

Desserts are some of the most exuberant in South East Asia, especially the favourite “eis cendol” which features shaved ice, tropical fruit, coconut milk and pandan flavoured “worms” made from mung bean flour.

 

https://www.sbs.com.au/food/article/2008/07/01/about-indonesian-food

 


translated by Gooogle translate

TENTANG MAKANAN INDONESIA

Dengan 6,000 Islands, ada banyak daerah istimewa, tapi di mana pun Anda berada di Indonesia, sebagian besar makanan, termasuk sarapan, didasarkan sekitar beras. secara harfiah berarti “nasi goreng”, nasi goreng dianggap nasional hidangan dari Indonesia dan dapat ditemukan di mana-mana dari jalan Hawker gerobak untuk pesta makan malam atau restoran. itu adalah makanan tumis beras dibumbui dengan kecap manis (manis kecap), bawang merah, bawang putih, asam dan cabai dan disertai dengan bahan lain, terutama telur, ayam, udang atau asin ikan kering. sambals juga landasan masakan dan ini Chilli berbasis bumbu mungkin baik baru dibuat atau dibeli di toko. ada banyak jenis sambals, semua yang menggabungkan berbagai Chilli Peppers dengan kombinasi yang berbeda dari rempah-rempah, buah atau sayuran. Indonesia percaya memberikan “memulai kick” mereka langit-langit dengan panas cabai dan asam crunch acar, sehingga makanan umumnya terdiri dari beras, sambal dan acar dengan sejumlah kecil daging, makanan laut atau sayuran, sering di kari bentuk. orang makan baik dengan tangan kanan atau dengan sendok dan garpu. beberapa intens rasa di Indonesia makanan berasal dari sangat manis dan asam bahan – seperti kental manis kecap disebut kecap manis, yang digunakan di banyak piring. asam catatan di masakan berasal dari asam dan kapur dan aromatik dari bawang merah, jahe, lengkuas, Pandan, kunyit, serai dan kapur daun. dua makanan dipuja oleh orang Indonesia tempe – difermentasi kedelai biasanya ditemukan di Blok bentuk yang tinggi protein dan serat – dan krupuk, atau digoreng kerupuk, terbuat dari udang, makanan laut atau sayuran, yang dimakan pada awal makan. karena lembab iklim dan vulkanik tanah, buah-buahan tropis, sayuran dan rempah-rempah yang ditemukan dalam kelimpahan. kering rempah-rempah seperti ketumbar biji, kapulaga polong, Cinnamon Duri, biji jintan, cengkeh dan pala digunakan setiap hari dalam banyak piring dan eachcurry memiliki sejumlah kering rempah-rempah serta rempah segar. makanan penutup adalah beberapa yang paling subur di Asia Tenggara, terutama favorit “Eis cendol” yang fitur shaved es, buah-buahan tropis, santan dan Pandan rasa “cacing” terbuat dari kacang hijau tepung.

 


Translated by Anggiana

TENTANG MAKANAN INDONESIA

 

Dengan sebanyak 6.000 pulau di Indonesia, ada banyak keistimewaan di setiap daerahnya, tetapi di mana pun Anda jika berada di Indonesia, sebagian besar makananannya, termasuk sarapan, adalah nasi. Fried rice atau nasi goreng dianggap sebagai hidangan khas dari Indonesia dan bisa ditemukan di mana-mana dari penjual gerobak jalanan sampai pesta makan malam dan restoran. Nasi goreng adalah tumisan nasi, dibumbui dengan kecap manis, bawang merah, bawang putih, asam jawa dan cabai, dan ditambahkan dengan bahan-bahan lainnya seperti telur, ayam, udang, atau ikan asin.

Sambal juga bahan dasar masakan ini dan sambal yang berasal dari cabai ini bisa dibuat sendiri atau beli di toko-toko. Ada banyak jenis sambal, semua digabung dengan macam bubuk cabai dan digabung dengan macam rempah-rempah lainnya, buah-buahan atau sayuran.

Orang Indonesia biasa memberikan langit-langit lidah mereka dengan rasa pedas cabai dan rasa asam dari acar, jadi makanan umum orang Indonesia terdiri dari nasi, sambal, dan acar dengan sejumlah kecil daging, makanan laut dan sayuran, seringnya dibikin dalam bentuk gulai. Orang-orang Indonesian biasanya makan dengan tangan kanan mereka ataupun dengan sendok dan garpu.

Beberapa rasa yang kuat yang dimiliki makanan Indonesia berasal dari bahan-bahan sangat manis dan asam, seperti kecap kental manis atau hanya disebut kecap manis, yang digunakan di banyak makanan. Rasa asam di dalam makanan berasal dari asam jawa dan jeruk nipis, dan aromanya berasal dari bawang merah, jahe, lengkuas, pandan, kunyit, serai, dan daun jeruk.

Dua makanan yang disukai oleh orang Indonesia adalah tempe, yaitu kacang kedelai yang difermentasi, berbentuk kotak, dan tinggi akan protein dan serat. Selain itu kerupuk, terbuat dari udang, makanan laut, atau sayuran, yang dimakan pada awal makan.

Karena Indonesia beriklim lembab dan bertanah vulkanik, buah-buahan tropis, sayuran dan rempah-rempah sangat berlimpah. Rempah-rempah kering seperti biji ketumbar, kapulaga, kayu manis, biji jintan, cengkeh dan pala digunakan setiap hari dalam masakan dan setiap gulai memiliki sejumlah rempah-rempah kering dan segar.

Makanan penutup yang banyak dicari di Asia Tenggara adalah khususnya “es cendol” yang terbuat dari es serut, buah-buahan tropis, santan, dan tepung kacang hijau yang berbentuk “cacing” dengan rasa pandan.

 

Tugas 2 PBIBK: Indirect Sentences in an Article

Sentence 1: “This isn’t something that’s going to happen 100 years from now. We’re losing them right now,” said marine biologist Julia Baum of Canada’s University of Victoria.

Indirect: Julia Baum said that that was not something that was going to happen 100 years from then. They were losing them right then.

Sentence 2:“To lose coral reefs is to fundamentally undermine the health of a very large proportion of the human race,” said Ruth Gates.

Indirect: Ruth Gates said that to lose coral reefs was to fundamentally undermine the health of a very large proportion of the human race.

Sentence 3: “The models indicate that we will see the return of bleaching in the South Pacific soon, along with a possibility of bleaching in both the eastern and western parts of the Indian Ocean,” said Mark Eakin.

Indirect: Mark Eakin said the models indicated that they would see the return of bleaching soon, along with a possibility of bleaching in both the eastern and western parts of the Indian Ocean.

Sentence 4: “Whether you’re living in North America or Europe or Australia, you should be concerned,” said biologist OveHoegh-Guldberg, director of the Global Change Institute at Australia’s University of Queensland. “This is not just some distant dive destination, a holiday destination. This is the fabric of the ecosystem that supports us.”

Indirect: OveHoegh-Guldberg, director of the Global Change Institute at Australia’s University of Queensland said that whether we were living in North America or Europe or Australia, we should be concerned and that was not just some distant dive destination, a holiday destination. That was the fabric of the ecosystem that supported us.

 

Group Members:

AnnisaNadyastiti / 11614383

AnggianaYuanitaFardhani / 11614238

FeilinaAyuAnanda / 14614143

Katrina Desiree Jaafar / 15614800

 

Class: 4SA01

List of Questions of Job Interview & Illegal Questions

Below is the questions that are commonly asked in the job interview.

LIST OF QUESTIONS

  1. What is your name?
  2. What were your responsibilities?
  3. What did you like or dislike about your previous job?
  4. What were your starting and final levels of compensation?
  5. What is your greatest strength and weakness?
  6. How do you handle stress and pressure?
  7. How do you evaluate success?
  8. What have you done professionally that you succeeded at, but isn’t an experience you’d want to repeat?”
  9. Is it better to be perfect and late, or good and on time?
  10. Can you tell me about this company?
  11. Can you tell me about your relationship with the people around you especially your collegue?
  12. Describe a difficult work situation or project and how you overcame it?
  13. Why did you leave your last job?
  14. Why should we hire you?
  15. Why do you want to work for us?
  16. Do you work better with other people or by yourself?
  17. What are you looking for in terms of career development?
  18. How would you describe the way you work?
  19. What do you expect to get from this job?
  20. What salary do you expect?
  21. Where did you learn that we have a vacancy for this position?

 

Besides the questions above, an employer can not asks some questions like these (usually personal):

LIST OF ILLEGAL QUESTION

  1. Question about age
  • How old are you?
  • When did you graduate high school?
  • What is your date of birth?

Age discrimination is unlawful in any term, condition, or privilege related to employment. If you faced with these questions you can choose not to answer, or answer with the truthful, if vague, “My age is not an issue for my performance in this job.”

  1. Questions about ancestry or nationality

There are few questions that illegal to ask relating to ancestry and race which are pertinent to employment.

  • You have a strong accent. Where are you from?
  • What race do you identify yourself as?

It would be an act of discrimination, if employers based their hiring decisions on someone’s nationality or their ethnicity.Faced with questions such as these, you can refuse to answer, stating simply, “This question does not affect my ability to perform the job.”

  1. Questions About Criminal Record

During an interview, an interviewer can legally ask about any convicted crimes that relate to the job duties. For example, if you are interviewing for a position that requires handling money or merchandise, you can legally be asked if you have ever been convicted of theft. Depending of the type of job you are applying, the employer will usually do a background check. During an interview, you cannot be asked about arrests without convictions, or involvement in any political demonstrations.

You may choose to tell the interviewer simply, “There is nothing in my past which would affect my ability to perform the duties of this job.

  1. Questions About Disability

Under no circumstances is a prospective employer allowed to ask your height, weight, or any details regarding any physical or mental limitations you may have, for example:

  1. Have you ever been treated for mental disability?
  2. Have you experienced any serious illnesses in the past year?
  3. Do you have a visual, speech, or hearing disability?

It is unlawful for an employer to discriminate against a qualified applicant or employee with a disability. No employer should ask about your physical or mental limitations, unless they state it in their job requirements. If you choose to reply, you can state “I am confident that I will be able to handle the requirements of this position.”

Questions About Family Status

An interviewer can’t ask

  • What is your marital status?
  • Are you pregnant?
  • Do you have children?
  • What is your child care situation?
  • Do you intend to have children (or more children)?
  • How much does your spouse earn in a year?

These questions can be too private, discriminative, and it is not relevant to your job requirements. If you choose to answer a question of this kind, a graceful way to answer is to say that you can perform all the duties that the position entails and that you plan to be very dedicated in your work.

  1. Questions About Religion or Belief

A few examples of illegal questions about belief or religion are:

  • What is your religious affiliation?
  • Will you need to observe a religious holiday?

An employer cannot consider religious belief in any employment action, which in this case is hiring. It is rude and discriminative to question other people’s belief or their place of worship. And it is not related to your job or your job requirements. If you encounter such questions, you can reply by saying that your belief will not interrupt your ability to do your job.

 

Book Review : I’ve Got Your Number by Sophie Kinsella

Author: Sophie Kinsella

Published: Dial Press Trade

Pages: 433

Genre: Contemporary, Romance, Comedy

Souce: Purchased from Periplus 

Format: Paperback

Find it on

Goodreads

Amazon

Periplus (Indonesia only)





Summary from Goodreads

I’ve lost it. 😦 The only thing in the world I wasn’t supposed to lose. My engagement ring. It’s been in Magnus’s family for three generations. And now the very same day his parents are coming, I’ve lost it. The very same day! Do not hyperventilate, Poppy. Stay positive 🙂 !! Poppy Wyatt has never felt luckier. She is about to marry her ideal man, Magnus Tavish, but in one afternoon her “happily ever after” begins to fall apart. Not only has she lost her engagement ring in a hotel fire drill but in the panic that follows, her phone is stolen. As she paces shakily around the lobby, she spots an abandoned phone in a trash can. Finders keepers! Now she can leave a number for the hotel to contact her when they find her ring. Perfect! Well, perfect except that the phone’s owner, businessman Sam Roxton, doesn’t agree. He wants his phone back and doesn’t appreciate Poppy reading his messages and wading into his personal life. What ensues is a hilarious and unpredictable turn of events as Poppy and Sam increasingly upend each other’s lives through emails and text messages. As Poppy juggles wedding preparations, mysterious phone calls, and hiding her left hand from Magnus and his parents . . . she soon realizes that she is in for the biggest surprise of her life.”

Rating: 5/5 

https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-yK_DtXaXEDQ/VsK1HCO5i6I/AAAAAAAAAC0/1KWn4cRbaqU/s1600/https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-yK_DtXaXEDQ/VsK1HCO5i6I/AAAAAAAAAC0/1KWn4cRbaqU/s1600/https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-yK_DtXaXEDQ/VsK1HCO5i6I/AAAAAAAAAC0/1KWn4cRbaqU/s1600/https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-yK_DtXaXEDQ/VsK1HCO5i6I/AAAAAAAAAC0/1KWn4cRbaqU/s1600/



OH. MY. GOD



This book has driving me crazy. I LOVED IT!



You know what? Sophie Kinsella is my favorite author all the time because she is a hilarious and engaging  and brilliant author! All of her books are brilliant and very funny. She know how to make the reader laugh out loud while reading her book.



I’ve Got Your Number is one of my favorite besides Confession of a Shopaholic books. I love every character in this novel. Poppy Wyatt, the main character, she is clumsy but hilarious. She lost her engagement ring and her phone in the same day. Then she found a phone in a bin. So she take out the phone and possess it as her own. And her story is begin, that phone led her to an elusive bussinessman Sam Roxton, because turned out she takes his office phone.

Second, Sam Roxton, the male lead in the book, like I said he is a a bussinessman who doesn’t have time to reply messages on his phone. If he reply? He only replies very short message like he didn’t care at all. That’s why he has PA to handle this, but his PA has resigned suddenly. Poppy reads all of his messages and replies them all with “xxx”. Haha. She did that under Sam’s name ( I even laughing while writing this).

My favorite scene?

I think other reviewers will agree with me. My favorite scene when Poppy plays scrabble with her fiancee’s family, Magnus aka Dr. Magnus Tavish. His family is very intellect and educated, he and his father are professor in university. All of his family put oh-so-f*cking-difficult words on scrabble, except Poppy who only knows “Pig”. Hahaha. Coincidentally, Sam texts her, then Poppy asks him to help her and finds difficult word. I don’t remember the word but because of that word, because of Sam helped her to cheat, her fiancee family impress with her. They didn’t know if Poppy is actually intellect too and she won the game. Hahaha.

This book made me ship Poppy and Sam. They are perfect together. Oh I love them both.

You should read it, guys. I highly recommend this. You won’t regret it!

 

NEGOTIATION IN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILL

  1. What is negotiation?

The word ‘negotiation’ was defined by several sources. According to BussinessDictionary.com, negotiation is a bargaining (give and take) process between two or more parties (each with its own aims, needs, and viewpoints) seeking to discover a common ground and reach an agreement to settle a matter of mutual concern or resolve a conflict.

Meanwhile in her website beyondintractability.com, Maiese (2003)defined negotiation asa discussion between two or more disputants who are trying to work out a solution to their problem.

  • This interpersonal or inter-group process can occur at a personal level, as well as at a corporate or international (diplomatic) level. Negotiations typically take place because the parties wish to create something new that neither could do on his or her own, or to resolve a problem or dispute between them.
  • The parties acknowledge that there is some conflict of interest between them and think they can use some form of influence to get a better deal, rather than simply taking what the other side will voluntarily give them.
  • They prefer to search for agreement rather than fight openly, give in, or break off contact.
  • When parties negotiate, they usually expect give and take. While they have interlocking goals that they cannot accomplish independently, they usually do not want or need exactly the same thing.
  • This interdependence can be either win-lose or win-win in nature, and the type of negotiation that is appropriate will vary accordingly. The disputants will either attempt to force the other side to comply with their demands, to modify the opposing position and move toward compromise, or to invent a solution that meets the objectives of all sides. The nature of their interdependence will have a major impact on the nature of their relationship, the way negotiations are conducted, and the outcomes of these negotiations.
  • Mutual adjustment is one of the key causes of the changes that occur during a negotiation. Both parties know that they can influence the other’s outcomes and that the other side can influence theirs. The effective negotiator attempts to understand how people will adjust and readjust their positions during negotiations, based on what the other party does and is expected to do.
  • The parties have to exchange information and make an effort to influence each other. As negotiations evolve, each side proposes changes to the other party’s position and makes changes to its own. This process of give-and-take and making concessions is necessary if a settlement is to be reached. If one party makes several proposals that are rejected, and the other party makes no alternate proposal, the first party may break off negotiations.
  • Parties typically will not want to concede too much if they do not sense that those with whom they are negotiating are willing to compromise.The parties must work toward a solution that takes into account each person’s requirements and hopefully optimizes the outcomes for both. As they try to find their way toward agreement, the parties focus on interests, issues, and positions, and use cooperative and/or competitive processes to come to an agreement.

 

  1. What are the negotiation styles? Explain!

There are 5 types of negotiating styles that are described by Dr. Kenneth W. Thomas and Dr. Ralph H. Kilmann:

  1. Competing (I win – You lose)

This is one of the most used styles in negotiating. This style is primarily concerned with only on their own needs. They often use a variety of tactics, some those tactics are manipulative such as attacks, threats, and other aggressive behavior to achieve their objectives. Their concern for the relationship is low.This style is most effective when results are needed quickly, or you are certain there is no room for negotiation.

  1. Accommodating (I Lose – You Win)
    This style of negotiation is all about the relationship with the other party. Negotiators, who follows this style believes that in order to get what they want, they have to give everything to the other party and maybe they will do the same thing in return. But often, negotiator of this kind, give away too much too soon and tend to neglect their needs in favor of helping the other side get what they want. Examples of this style are when a person knowingly injures another person and willingly offers to pay all medical expenses hoping the injured party does not sue.
  2. Compromising (I Lose / Win Some – You Lose/ Win Some)

This style is common when both of the negotiating parties have a strong relationship and high level of trust. Compromising style is also common when there is a short period of time in making the decision. This style values the relationship and acknowledges that there is a loss but it is better to compromise then completely lose. A compromising style results in both parties getting more or less half of what they originally wanted. This style should not be confused with Collaborating (I win – You win).

  1. Collaborating (I Win – You Win)
    In the Collaborative style, the negotiators are innovators. They recognize that both parties have needs that must be met and focuses on using problem solving methods to find creative solutions and satisfactory agreements. Negotiators with this style, tend to be assertive about their needs and cooperative with the other side. It needs to be recognized that this style of negotiating is somewhat wonderful ideological because in reality it is high on resources and time.
  2. Avoiding (I Lose – You Lose)
    This style can be called as the ‘passive aggressive style’. The user of this style is unassertive and uncooperative. They do not immediately pursue their own concerns or the other parties nor do they ever address the conflict. This style is characterized by sidestepping, postponing, and ignoring the issue or situation. While this is in play, mutual resentment builds and cracks to total breakdown of the relationship may occur. But, this style can be useful when the stakes of a negotiated outcome are not worth the investment of time or the potential for igniting conflict. Moreover, it is effective when avoidance of the situation or issue does not greatly affect the relationship and short term task is not important to either party.

 

  1. Explain the negotiation process!

Steps of the Negotiation Process

The negotiation process can essentially be understood as a four-stage process. The four stages of the negotiation process are preparation, opening, bargaining and closure.

Stage 1: Preparation

Preparation is instrumental to the success of the negotiation process. Being well-prepared generates confidence and gives an edge to the negotiator. Preparation involves the following activities:

(i) Gathering Information: One needs to learn as much as one can about the problem and ascertain what information is needed from the other side. Understanding clearly the issues involved is also needed.

(ii)  Leverage Evaluation: Evaluation of one’s leverage and the other party’s leverage at the outset is important because there may be a number of things one can do to improve one’s leverage or diminish the leverage of the other side.

(iii)  Understand the people involved: It is important to know the people with whom the negotiation is to take place. An understanding of their objectives, roles and the issues likely to be raised by them will facilitate better handling of the situation during the negotiation process.

(iv) Rapport: It is helpful to establish a rapport with the opponent during the early stages, that is, before the bargaining process begins is helpful. This was, one can determine early on how cooperative the opponent is going to be.

(v) Know your objectives: Clarity of objectives is absolutely essential. It needs to be decided in advance how much you are willing to concede to the opponent and what your priorities are. All arguments and justifications should be ready.

(vi) Type of negotiation: Anticipate the type of negotiation expected, that is, ascertain whether it will be highly competitive, cooperative or something unusual; whether the negotiation will be face to face, by fax, through a mediator, or in some other manner.

(vii) Plan: Decide on the negotiation approach and plan accordingly.

Stage 2: Opening Phase

Here the two sides come face to face. Each party tries to make an impression on the other side and influence their thinking at the first opportunity. Psychologically, this phase is important because it sets the tone for the negotiation to a large extent. It involves both negotiating parties presenting their case to each other.

Stage 3: Bargaining Phase

The bargaining phase involves coming closer to the objective you intended to achieve when you started the negotiation. In this phase, the basic strategy is to convince the other side of the appropriateness of your demands and then persuading the other party to concede to those demands. For this, one needs to be logical in one’s approach and frame clearly-thought-out and planned arguments.

Stage 4: Closure Phase

The closing phase of a negotiation represents the opportunity to capitalize on all of the work done in the earlier phases. The research that has been done in the preparation phase, combined with all of the information that has been gained is useful in the closing phase. It also involves the sealing of the agreement in which both parties formalize the agreement in a written contract or letter of intent. Reviewing the negotiation is as important as the negotiation process itself. It teaches lessons on how to achieve a better outcome. Therefore, one should take the time to review each element and find out what went well and what needs to be improved.

  1. What are the characteristics of negotiation?

THERE ARE CHARACTERISTICS IN NEGOTIATION, SUCH AS :

  • CONFRONTATION BETWEEN PLAYERS

The negotiation is presented as an activity of change, a meeting sponsored by the parties. These players can represent their own interests or defend the interests of a group, the role of negotiators in the latter case is much more complex due to the implementation of the mandate and expectations about their behavior on the one hand, and the need for agreement another, depending for that confidence margin were told. This situation generates what is called dual membership.

  • THE CONCEPT OF DIVERGENCE

The meeting between the parties is a voluntary process designed to resolve differences. The voluntary nature of it means that the parties may choose to join or not the process to settle their differences and accept any outcome.

There is always the desire not to agree, but sometimes incurring heavy losses for both sides, precisely to avoid the encounter is promoted because the protagonists depend on a decision that involves them, which a priori is not taken when deliberating, this is because there is a range of views regarding this decision that concerns them.

In this sense, negotiation is a joint exercise of decision-making, generally , we would say that the negotiations preceding a potential conflict precisely intervening to end hostilities.

  • NEGOTIATED ORDER

As for where scoping exercises , we see that negotiation occurs in all kinds of social system contributing to its continuity. In any social system, even in the most repressive, the established order is always a negotiated order in so far as the decision of a party involves the agreement of other parties who have some power over the first. This phenomenon is found in all models of society as a way of permanent connection. Negotiation enables articulate, organize and perpetuate various forms of social interaction, nations negotiate as do governments, employers and trade unions, parents and children.As noted Chalvin, negotiation emerges as one of the last attempts to maintain social connections .

  • MIXED RELATIONS OF MOTIVATION

In the dynamics of the negotiation are involved the concepts of divergence and cooperation. The effort to resolve their differences and reach a decision on the distribution of resources among the parties involved embark on a social relationship in which both together common and divergent interests, where the parties have simultaneously confronted with incentives to cooperate and incentives to compete.

Through negotiation, the parties resolve the dilemma competition – cooperation while maintaining or improving their positions and thereby protecting it from other groups or individuals. They get so keep conflict within acceptable limits, trading in this sense is not a debate, it’s a conversation without order.

Negotiating conflict is playing cooperation, the product of negotiation is formalized in terms of commitment representing roughly calculated result of a series of reciprocal concessions.

  • POWER RELATIONS

Is required in any case of a power relationship between the parties to the negotiations for this result arises. This relationship can be statutory order, the standard hierarchical can say who must negotiate and who is not.

The standard may be charismatic staff, may represent that power in their area (the oldest place). It can be as a phenomenon of competence on the matter. You can also represent someone who is the result of an alliance of interests between the parties.

As noted Chalvin, it is necessary to negotiate when the reasons do not require power, we would say that is not traded on principle, negotiations with a given situation of the parties .

Without any power relationship between the parties one of the parties could take unilaterally imposed obligation to the other. When the power of one is greater than the other negotiation has no reason to be and will be replaced by domination.

  • Interdependence RELATIONSHIP

According to social exchange theory of Thibaut and Kelly, dependency exists when an actor results are determined by interpolation between their behavior and that of others. Based on this principle suggests that negotiation arises from two circumstances :

The scarcity of resources creates competition among those who need the same resources on one side and the other an unequal allocation of itself that creates the need for exchange between the parties the different resources needed by each. This theory has also been studied by BACARACH LAWLER .

Rubbin, summarizes the character of relationships in defining negotiation that negotiation is ultimately the very interdependence of the parties.

  • PROCESS THAT IS IN THE PERCEPTION OF THE STARS

Trading relations between the parties, involving efforts to influence perception and the other party assessment of the situation made ​​by tactics such demands, threats, concessions, promises, in fact each party uses its perceptual abilities to disrupt the opponent’s tactics, while the latter conveys the impression you created. The critical tactical. Is to manipulate the perception of power through tactics such as exaggeration, the boasts and argumentation.

The negotiation about creating a mutually acceptable definition of the relationship of power that will be the most beneficial way possible for each. At the end of the process each party is motivated to comply with mirror image received from the other party.

Each actor, you need two sets of skills to persuade the other hand the direction of boast. On the one hand the need to project or put in the place of another and otherwise pose a situation consistent with self – projected image.

  • PURPOSE ACCURACY AND PERFORMANCE MARGIN

If negotiation is an encounter between the protagonists, the result of confrontation during a deviation observed, requires each party holds a target to attack and leeway to reduce divergences.

It is necessary to have resources for concessions, a situation typical of negotiation is to be tactically prepared. Armed with arguments from the competitive and the cooperative aspect concessions.

  • IS A PROCESS PARAMETERS INVOLVED IN TWO antagonistic

The negotiation is replaced by one side in the existence of cooperation for the sake of the survival of the system. On the other hand in maximizing the goals and interests of each party. This individual desire to maximize the interests and collective desire to achieve an equitable, cooperative aspect involves a conflict of the parameters involved.

In this respect the loyalty and organizational integration are key elements sought to develop consensus ideology by advocating that the survival needs of the negotiation is binding on all the others and that each party has to avoid instability and maximize loyalty for the bargaining power is strong, consistent and durable.

  • Externalized NEGOTIATION OF CONDUCT SOME SEQUENTIAL PATTERNS

The pattern of relations during the negotiation is sequential rather than simultaneous . The whole point is that given sequential assessment exchanges, decision, down to an acceptable result.

  1. Explain the positive & negative effects in negotiation!

Positive :

  • Having more confidence and higher tendencies to plan to use a cooperative strategy
  • Negotiators who are in a positive mood tend to enjoy the interaction more, show less contentious behavior, use less aggressive tactics and more cooperative strategies
  • Negotiators with positive affectivity reached more agreements and tended to honor those agreements more.
  • Increasing satisfaction with achieved outcome and influences one’s desire for future interactions.

negative :

  • Competitive strategies and to cooperate less can reduce joint outcomes.
  • Anger disrupts the process by reducing the level of trust, clouding parties’ judgment, narrowing parties’ focus of attention and changing their central goal from reaching agreement to retaliating against the other side.
  • If the negotiators is angry and pay less attention to the opponents’ interest, it achieves lower joint gains.
  • Because anger makes negotiators more self-centered in their preferences, it increases the likelihood that they will reject profitable offers.

Sources:

http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/negotiation

http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/negotiation.html

http://www.managersdoor.com/topic/top-5-have-you-got-a-style-negotiating-style/

https://viaconflict.wordpress.com/2012/12/16/five-negotiation-styles/

http://www.managementstudyhq.com/characteristics-and-steps-of-negotiation-process.html

https://seminarionegociointegral.wordpress.com/2013/09/10/characteristics-of-a-negotiation-situation/

http://academlib.com/3047/management/positive_affect_negotiation

 

 

Why Listening Is Such a Big Challenge for Most People?

Why listening is such a big challenge for most people?

”While some may be impressed with how well you speak, the right people will be impressed with how well you listen,” said Mike Myatt the contributor of Forbes. Nearly every aspect of human life could be improved by better listening —  from family matters to corporate business affairs to international relations. Most of us are terrible listeners. We’re such poor listeners, in fact, that we don’t know how much we’re missing.

It is right that listening is a big challenge for most people. Simply because we always thinking that being heard is more important than hearing. We forget that the first rule in communication is to seek understanding before seeking to be understoond, and remember communication is not a one way street.

There are so many barriers to be a good listening. First, the most common one is, we are trying to impress people. Because we want to impress them, so we talk more and more share opinion and ideas, we forget that we need to stop talking and listen other people ideas. Second, because we know the answer. It means that you think you already know what the speaker wants to say, before they actually finish saying it. You might then impatiently cut them off or try to complete the sentence for them. Third, this is what I think the main problem why listening is hard, you probably don’t listen as effectively as you think you do and you probably don’t know it. (Yes?)

We can be a good listener. When we want to change ourselves to be a good listener, listening is no longer a big challenge for us. As Mike Myatt suggests, “Allow me to leave you with one final thought to reflect on – if you’re ready for advanced listening skills, don’t just listen to those who agree with you, but actively seek out dissenting opinions and thoughts. Listen to those that confront you, challenge you, stretch you, and develop you.”

 

Source:

https://www.forbes.com/sites/mikemyatt/2012/02/09/why-most-leaders-need-to-shut-up-listen/#7fec217a6ef9

How Technology Affects Communication Positively and Negatively

The development  of technology has improved our lifestyle without we realize it. And without we know it, it has made its impact felt on every aspect of life, especially on communication. The impact, of course have a positve and negative sides. Now, I would tell you the impact of popular technology elements such as, emails , telephones, cell phones, etc. on our means of communication. Mobiles and the internet are literally the basic necessities these days. Admit it, we would feel something missing in life, if there were no mobiles or internet.

These are the impact of technology in communiction:
First, thanks to technology, we now have the power to communicate with anybody on the other side of the world.

  1. There is No Barriers. Communication is now easy; in case of situations when you want to convey something urgently to someone, mobiles and emails come in handy.
  2. Strengthened relations.Communication has made it easy to keep in touch with old contacts, and has also helped strengthen relationships. Thanks to social media.
  3. Better solutions. Communication has brought the world closer and promoted exchange of thoughts to find better solutions to any problem.
  4. E-education. Technological elements of communication like video-conferencing has made it possible to give best education to students via expert faculty on the web.
  5. Impact on relations. Finding someone to date was never so easy, thanks to the dating and chatting websites! No one would disagree if I say – Technology is behind the success of long distance relationships. Video chats and social networking sites have played a big role in keeping people in touch.
  6. Last but not least. Technological elements of communication have promoted faster decision-making, and led to the development and progress of the world. Video conferencing has played a considerate role in promoting faster decision-making. Most of the businesses depend on technology for communication.

 

These are the negative impact of technology in communication.

The most negative effect of technology that I feel is the charm of the good old world is missing. The letters, and lengthy face-to-face conversations have gone away, and have been replaced by texting or chatting. And then, the current generation lacks essential interpersonal skills. You know,  a major reason for this tendency is increased frequency of communication through texting and chatting on websites.

  1. It is affected on nonverbal communication. Technological means of communication has also affected nonverbal communication. Lack of face-to-face interaction has reduced the nonverbal grasping power of individuals.
  2. Near yet far. Teenagers nowadays especially are always hooked to the social networking sites. They are more close to online friends, but the gap between parents and kids has increased considerably. The communication is missing, parents are not technology savvy and not used to the communication styles of their kids, and this has increased the generation gap.
  3. Reduced social interactions. Consider the socializing among people. Life has changed a lot, there are no social meetings and get-togethers (the frequency has reduced). People are more bothered about their online life rather than the real social life.
  4. Has led to many addictions. People have literally become addicted to the Internet and cell phones, and this addiction has led to many anxiety disorders. People addicted to the Internet feel lonely and isolated. (Agreed?)
  5. Malicious motives. Many people abuse the social networking sites and communicate to unsuspecting beings pretending someone else. This tendency of people has done more harm than good.

This was all about the impact of communication on technology. As you can see, the impact is both positive and negative. But logically thinking, technology has bettered the communication process and has done negligible harm. It all depends on how we use these means. Use the technological means of communication for sane purposes, and don’t abuse the technology for malicious motives.